George Alex Koulieris1    Kaan Akşit2    Michael Stengel2    Rafał K. Mantiuk3    Katerina Mania4    Christian Richardt5

1 Durham University    2 NVIDIA    3 University of Cambridge    4 Technical University of Crete    5 University of Bath

Computer Graphics Forum (Eurographics 2019 State-of-the-Art Report)


Virtual and augmented reality (VR/AR) are expected to revolutionise entertainment, healthcare, communication and the manufacturing industries among many others. Near-eye displays are an enabling vessel for VR/AR applications, which have to tackle many challenges related to ergonomics, comfort, visual quality and natural interaction. These challenges are related to the core elements of these near-eye display hardware and tracking technologies. In this state-of-the-art report, we investigate the background theory of perception and vision as well as the latest advancements in display engineering and tracking technologies. We begin our discussion by describing the basics of light and image formation. Later, we recount principles of visual perception by relating to the human visual system. We provide two structured overviews on state-of-the-art near-eye display and tracking technologies involved in such near-eye displays. We conclude by outlining unresolved research questions to inspire the next generation of researchers.

Presentation at Eurographics 2019

Time Topic click for video recording Presenter
15:00 Introduction Christian Richardt, University of Bath
15:04 The Human Visual System Michael Stengel, NVIDIA
15:17 Light, Optics & Images George Alex Koulieris, Durham University
15:27 Spatial Light Modulators Rafał K. Mantiuk, University of Cambridge
15:36 Display Technologies Kaan Akşit, NVIDIA
15:52 Tracking Technologies Christian Richardt, University of Bath
16:05 Gaze-driven Applications Katerina Mania, Technical University of Crete
16:20 Conclusion Christian Richardt, University of Bath



  author  = {George Alex Koulieris and Kaan Ak\c{s}it and Michael Stengel and Rafa{\l} K. Mantiuk and Katerina Mania and Christian Richardt},
  title   = {Near-Eye Display and Tracking Technologies for Virtual and Augmented Reality},
  journal = {Computer Graphics Forum},
  year    = {2019},
  volume  = {38},
  number  = {2},
  pages   = {493--519},
  month   = may,
  doi     = {10.1111/cgf.13654},
  url     = {},